Tonying and Company, New York, to 1930 
Freer Gallery of Art, purchased from Tonying and Company, New York, in 1930 
 Object file, undated folder sheet note. See also Freer Gallery of Art Purchase List file, Collections Management Office.
 See note 1.
- Previous Owner(s)
Tonying and Company
Despite the beauty of its decoration, with elaborate taotie patterns and animal motifs rendered in different levels of relief, this vessel is most famous for its lengthy cast inscription of 187 characters. The text, one of the longest from the early Zhou period, is repeated inside the vessel and the lid. A court scribe named Ling might have composed the text himself; the cast inscription resembles the rhythm and flow of calligraphy. If so, he could have been following a family tradition: he was a younger relative of Da, who was responsible for the fangding (F1950.7) in the Freer collection.
The vessel commemorates three days of administrative meetings and ritual ceremonies held in Chengzhou during the reign of Zhao, the fourth Zhou monarch. Mingbao, the son of the Duke of Zhou and a nephew of the Taibao, led the events, which began with a massive gathering of court and regional officials and concluded with offerings of animal sacrifices. Afterwards, in appreciation of their efforts, Mingbao awarded ritual wine, “metal” (probably bronze), and oxen to Ling and his colleague Captain Kang, with the order that the gifts be used for ritual purposes.
- Published References
- Fu Shen, Glenn D. Lowry, Ann Yonemura, Thomas Lawton. From Concept to Context: Approaches to Asian and Islamic Calligraphy. Exh. cat. Washington. cat. 1, p. 20-21.
- Dr. John Alexander Pope, Mr. R.J. Gettens, James Cahill, Noel Barnard. The Freer Chinese Bronzes. Oriental Studies Series, vol. 1, no. 7 Washington. cat. 38, p. 213.
- Dr. John Alexander Pope, Thomas Lawton, Harold P. Stern. The Freer Gallery of Art. 2 vols., Washington and Tokyo, 1971-1972. cat. 9, p. 154.
- Jessica Rawson. Western Zhou Ritual Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections. Ancient Chinese Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections, vol. 2 Washington and Cambridge, MA. p. 63, fig. 80, 40.9.
- compiled by the staff of the Freer Gallery of Art. A Descriptive and Illustrative Catalogue of Chinese Bronzes: Acquired During the Administration of John Ellerton Lodge. Oriental Studies Series, no. 3 Washington, 1946. p. 4-6, 42-43, pls. 21-22.
- Grace Dunham Guest A.G. Wenley. Annotated Outlines of the History of Chinese Arts. Washington, 1949. p. 3.
- Chen Mengjia. Yin Zhou qing tong qi fen lei tu lu (Yin-Chou ch'ing t'ung ch'i fen lei t'u lu). 2 vols., Dongjing. A 646.
- Noel Barnard. Bronze Casting and Bronze Alloys in Ancient China. Monumenta serica, no. 14 Canberra. pls. 1, 23.
- Beasts & Beauty in Bronze., February 10, 1958. p. 84.
- Chin wen tsung chi. Taipei. pp. 2738-2739.
- Chugoku bijutsu (Chinese Art in Western Collections). 5 vols., Tokyo, 1972-1973. fig. 43.
- Higuchi Takayasu. Chugoku seidoki hyakusen., 1 hen. Tokyo. pl. 52.
- Dr. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. Introduction to the Art of Eastern Asia. Chicago, March 1932. opp. p. 32.
- W. A C. H. Dobson. Early Archaic Chinese: A Descriptive Grammar. Toronto. pp. 195-200.
- The Eternal Army: The Terracotta Soldiers of the First Emperor. Vercelli and New York. p. 29.
- Freer Gallery of Art. The Freer Gallery of Art. Washington. p. 6.
- Deane Heller David Heller. The Nation's Art Treasures: Press Release., October 30, 1954. .
- The Horizon Book of the Arts of China. New York. p. 45.
- Keng Jung Chang Wei. Yin Chou ch'ing t'ung ch'i t'ung lun (A Survey of Shang-Chou Bronzes). Peking. cat. 167.
- Keng Jung. Shang Chou i chi'i t'ung k'ao (The Bronzes of Shang and Chou). Yenching Journal of Chinese Studies, no. 17 Beijing. pp. 314, 409, fig. 603.
- Bernhard Karlgren. Some New Bronzes in the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities. no. 24 Stockholm. fig. 13.
- Virginia Kane. The Chronological Significance of the Inscribed Ancestor Dedication in the Periodization of Shang Bronze Vessels. vol. 35, pt. 4 Washington and Zurich. pp. 335-337, fig. 23.
- Higuchi Takayasu. Kijin to ningen no Chugoku. Tokyo. pp. 26-27.
- Franz Michael. China Through the Ages: History of a Civilization. Boulder and London. fig. 6a.
- Mizuno Seiichi Yukio Kobayashi. Zukai kokogaku jiten (Dictionary of Archaeology). Tokyo. p. 1039.
- Mizuno Seiichi. In Shu seidoki to tama (alt. spelling: In-sho seidoki to gyoku) (Bronzes and Jades of Ancient China). Tokyo. pl. 104, fig. 51.
- Edwards Park. Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution., 1st ed. Washington and New York. p. 338.
- Sekai bijutsu zenshu (A Complete Collection of World Art). 40 vols., Tokyo, F1951-1953. cat. 74.
- Sekai kokogaku taikei (Archaeology of the World). 16 vols., Tokyo, 1958-1962. p. 73, fig. 198.
- Shang Chou chin wen shi ch'eng. multi-vol., Taipei. cat. 5531.
- Osvald Siren. Kinas Konst Under Tre Artusenden. 2 vols., Stockholm, 1942-1943. pl. 8.
- Walter Karp. The Smithsonian Institution: An Establishment for the Increase and Diffusion of Knowledge Among Men. Washington. p. 114.
- Bernhard Karlgren. Yin and Chou in Chinese Bronzes. no. 8, 1955 article reprint. Stockholm. pl. 18, B24.
- Michael Sullivan. The Arts of China., 3rd ed. Berkeley. p. 35.
- Hai-Po Sun. Ho-nan chi chin t'u chih sheng lu (Illustrated Catalogue of Honan Bronzes). Peking. pls. 36a-b, 37.
- Sueji Umehara. Shina kodo seikwa (Selected Relics of Ancient Chinese Bronzes from Collections in Europe and Asia). 3 vols., Osaka. p. 23, fig. 4, pl.10-11.
- Sueji Umehara. On the Shapes of the Bronze Vessels of Ancient China: An Archaeological Study. Toho Bunka Gakuin kyoto kenkyujo kenkyu hohoku, vol.15 Kyoto. pl. 42, fig. 1.
- Benjamin Rowland, Laurence Sickman, H. G. Henderson, Robert Treat Paine, Richard Ettinghausen, Eric Schroeder. The University Prints. Oriental Art Series O 4 vols. Newton, Massachusetts, 1938-1941. Section 2: Early Chinese Art, pl. 99.
- Herman Floris Eduard Visser. Are There Other Projections of Flanges, besides Karlgren's "Hook Projections" which are Characteristic of Yin-Chou Bronzes? vol. 16, no. 5 Amsterdam, May 1939. p. 158, fig. 3.
- William Watson. Ancient Chinese Bronzes. The Arts of the East London. pl. 33a.
- William Watson. Early Civilization in China. Library of the early civilizations London, 1966. p. 95.
- Wu Qichang. Study of the Inscription on the "Ts'e i". Peking, June 1931. pp. 1661-1732.
- Luo Zhenyu. Chen sung tang chi ku i wen (Ancient Inscriptions in the Collection of Lo Chen-yu). multi-vol., . p. 49.
- Luo Zhenyu. A research into. vol. 5, no. 3 Kyoto, October 1929. opp. p. 480.
- Moruo Guo. Yin Chou ch'ing t'ung ch'i ming wen yen-chiu/Yin Zhou qing tong qi ming wen yan jiu: A study of the inscriptions on the bronzes of the Yin and Chou dynasties. vol. 1, Shanghai. p. 37 ff.
- Collection Area(s)
- Chinese Art
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