Pendants, beads, and gold chain


Historical period(s)
Warring States period, Eastern Zhou dynasty, 475-221 BCE
Jade (nephrite) and gold
H x W (overall): 42 x 20 cm (16 9/16 x 7 7/8 in)
China, Henan province, Probably Jincun
Credit Line
Purchase — Charles Lang Freer Endowment
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view
Jade, Jewelry and Ornament


carving, China, dance, Eastern Zhou dynasty (770 - 221 BCE), nephrite, plaited wire, tiger, Warring States period (475 - 221 BCE), wirework, woman

Possibly excavated from a tomb of the late Warring States period at Jincun, Henan province, China [1]

C. T. Loo & Company, New York 1930 [2]

From 1930
Freer Gallery of Art, purchased from C. T. Loo & Company, New York in 1930 [3]


[1] See Thomas Lawton, Chinese Art of the Warring States Period: Change and Continuity, 480-222 B.C., exhibition cat. (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1982), pg. 132, cat. no. 77.

[2] Object file, undated folder sheet. See also Freer Gallery of Art Purchase List file, Collections Management Office.

Previous Owner(s)

C.T. Loo & Company active 1908-1950


When the museum acquired this assemblage in 1930, shortly after the discoveries at Jincun, these four pendants and six cylindrical beads were attached to the linked gold chain as shown. Recent scientific study confirms both the jade and the chain are genuine to the period, but they might not have been together in ancient times.

To fashion these ornate pendants, Jincun craftsmen used relatively sophisticated metal tools to cut, drill, facet, and polish thin slices of beige nephrite. Patience and skill produced the dramatic contours, textured surfaces, and intricate openwork details that are an amazing aesthetic and technical advancement over the largely unadorned disks of the Neolithic period.

Published References
  • Thomas Lawton. Chinese Art of the Warring States Period: Change and Continuity, 480-222 B.C. Washington, 1982-1983. cat. 77, p. 132.
  • Dr. John Alexander Pope, Thomas Lawton, Harold P. Stern. The Freer Gallery of Art. 2 vols., Washington and Tokyo, 1971-1972. cat. 19, p. 155.
  • Masterpieces of Chinese and Japanese Art: Freer Gallery of Art handbook. Washington, 1976. p. 31.
  • Chang Wen-chi. Chung-kuo yu ch'i li tai shih. Hong Kong, 1978. p. 87.
  • Chugoku bijutsu (Chinese Art in Western Collections). 5 vols., Tokyo, 1972-1973. fig. 94.
  • Doris J. Dohrenwend. Jade Demonic Images from Early China. vol. 10 Washington and Ann Arbor, 1975. pp. 55-78, pl. 20, fig. 75.
  • Janet Douglas W. Thomas Chase. Examination of Two Eastern Zhou Jade and Gold Assemblages from Jincun, near Luoyang, Henan Province, China: Implications for the Original Configuration of the Freer Pectoral
    . vol. 46, no. 1 London. pp. 35-48, figs. 1-4.
  • Richard Gump. Jade: Stone of Heaven., 1st ed. Garden City, NY, 1962. p. 147.
  • Hai wai i chen (Chinese Art in Overseas Collections). Taipei, 1985. p. 55.
  • S. Howard Hansford. Chinese Carved Jades. The Arts of the East London. pl. 34.
  • The Horizon Book of the Arts of China. New York. p. 74.
  • Higuchi Takayasu. Kijin to ningen no Chugoku. Tokyo. contents, p. 111.
  • Mizuno Seiichi Yukio Kobayashi. Zukai kokogaku jiten (Dictionary of Archaeology). Tokyo. p. 788.
  • Mizuno Seiichi. In Shu seidoki to tama (alt. spelling: In-sho seidoki to gyoku) (Bronzes and Jades of Ancient China). Tokyo. pl. 72.
  • Na Chih-liang. Yu ch'i t'ung shih (A General Study of Chinese Jade). Hong Kong, 1965. p. 53, fig. 67.
  • Alfred Salmony. Carved Jade of Ancient China. Berkeley, 1938. pls.50-52, nos.1.
  • Alfred Salmony. Ein jadeschmuck der chinesischen frühzeit. vol. 10, no. 9 Munich, September 1932. pp. 292-294, ill. 1-3.
  • Sekai bijutsu zenshu (A Complete Collection of World Art). 40 vols., Tokyo, F1951-1953. cat. 108, p. 53.
  • Osvald Siren. Kinas Konst Under Tre Artusenden. 2 vols., Stockholm, 1942-1943. p. 131, pl. 56, fig. 85.
  • Sueji Umehara. Rakuyo kinson kobo shuei (Objects from the Ancient Tombs at Chin Ts'un, Lo-yang). Kyoto. p. 47, pl. 81, fig. 20.
  • Sueji Umehara. Shina kogyoku zuroku (Selected Specimens of Chinese Archaic Jade). Kyoto, 1955. pl. 87.
  • Benjamin Rowland, Laurence Sickman, H. G. Henderson, Robert Treat Paine, Richard Ettinghausen, Eric Schroeder. The University Prints. Oriental Art Series O 4 vols. Newton, Massachusetts, 1938-1941. Section 2: Early Chinese Art, pl. 116.
  • William Watson. The Art of Dynastic China. New York, 1981. ill. 600.
  • William Watson. Early Civilization in China. Library of the early civilizations London, 1966. p. 123.
  • A.G. Wenley. Early Chinese Jade. vol. 63, no. 5 Washington, November 1946. p. 347.
  • William Charles White. Discoveries Which Surpass Anything Yet Known of Archaic Chinese Jade: Lo-yang Types of Many Colors. vol. 184, no.4951 London, March 10, 1934. p. 371.
  • William Charles White. Tombs of Old Lo-yang: A Record of the Construction of a Group of Royal Tombs at Chin-ts'un, Honan, Probably Dating 550 B.C., 1st ed. Shanghai. cat. 310, pl. 125.
  • William Willetts. Foundations of Chinese Art from Neolithic Pottery to Modern Architecture. New York, 1965. p. 71.
  • Geoffrey WIlls. Jade of the East., 1st ed. New York, 1972. figs. 32-33.
  • Yashiro Yukio. Things of Beauty; Art Treasures Excavated from the Ancient Tombs at Chin-ts'un, Honan, China: With Special Reference to the Bronze Statuette of a Bird-Fancier. no. 37 Osaka, May 1962. p. 42.
  • Zusetsu sekai bunkashi taikei (Cultural History of the World). 27 vols., Tokyo, 1958-1961. vol. 15: p. 131.
  • Lao Kan. Jade Pendant and “Kang-Mao”. Institute of history and philology, vol. 27. p. 186.
  • Hayashi Minao. Sengoku jidai shutsudo bunbutsu no kenkyu. Kyoto. p. 125.
  • Huang Jun. Heng-chai ts'ang-chien Ku-yu t'u/Hengzhai cang jian gu yu tu: Ancient jades collected and seen by Huang Jun. vol. 2 Beijing. pl. 12, 1.
  • Moruo Guo. Liang chou chin wen tz'u: Inscriptions on bronzes. vol. 5 Tokyo. p. 1.
  • p. 169.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
Rights Statement

Copyright with museum