Disk (bi 璧)


Artist: Liangzhu culture 良渚 (ca. 3300-ca. 2250 BCE)
Historical period(s)
Late Neolithic period, ca. 3300-2250 BCE
Jade (nephrite)
Diam x D: 16 x 1.2 cm (6 1/4 x 1/2 in) Diam (hole): 4.3 cm (1 11/16 in)
China, Lake Tai region, but purportedly found at Luoyang , Henan province
but purportedly found at Luoyang , Henan province
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number
On View Location
Freer Gallery 19: Afterlife: Ancient Chinese Jades
Ceremonial Object, Jade

Ceremonial object

China, Late Neolithic period (ca. 5000 - ca. 1700 BCE), nephrite

Reportedly excavated in Lo-yang, Honan [1]

Wu Dacheng (1835-1902) [2]

To 1919
You Xiaoxi (late 19th-early 20th century), Shanghai, to 1919 [3]

Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from You Xiaoxi, in New York, in 1919 [4]

From 1920
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [5]


[1] According to Curatorial Remark 1 in the object record: "Formerly in the collection of Wu Ta Ch'eng of Kiangsu, and said to have been excavated at Lo-yang, Honan."

[2] See note 1.

[3] See Original Miscellaneous List, S.I. 1406, pg. 330, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives.

[4] See note 3.

[5] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s)

Charles Lang Freer 1854-1919
Wu Dacheng 1835-1902
You Xiaoxi (C.L. Freer source) late 19th-early 20th century

Published References
  • Description of antique Chinese paintings and brass wares as well as of porcelains of different ages. The Charles Lang Freer papers, 1919. No. 74, p. 55, 67.
Collection Area(s)
Chinese Art
Web Resources
Jades for Life and Death
Google Cultural Institute
Rights Statement

Copyright with museum

Related Objects