The Ramayana (Tales of Rama; The Freer Ramayana), Volume 2

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Patron: Abd al-Rahim
Artist: Syama Sundara Ghulam 'Ali Syama Sundara Kala Pahara Kamal Mohan Mushfiq Nadim Nadir (Bihhud) Qasim Sadi (active 16th century) Shyam Sundar Yusuf 'Ali Zayn al'-'Abidin
Historical period(s)
Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1597-1605
Mughal Court
Mughal School
Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper, in modern bindings
H x W: 27.5 x 15.2 cm (10 13/16 x 6 in)
Credit Line
Gift of Charles Lang Freer
Accession Number
On View Location
Currently not on view


ascetic, Brahma, chariot, Dasharatha, death, demon, giant, Hanuman, herb, hermitage, illustrated, India, Indra, Krishna, Kubera, Kumbhakarna, Kusha, Lakshmana, Lava, Madhavi, monkey, Mughal dynasty (1526 - 1858), Rama, Ramayana, Ravana, Reign of Akbar (1556 - 1605), sacrifice, sage, Shiva, Sita

To 1907
Colonel Henry Bathurst Hanna (1839-1914), London, to 1907 [1]

From 1907 to 1919
Charles Lang Freer (1854-1919), purchased from Colonel Henry Bathurst Hanna in 1907 [2]

From 1920
Freer Gallery of Art, gift of Charles Lang Freer in 1920 [3]


[1] Purchased with the Hanna Collection in 1907. See Original Catalogue of the Hanna Sale: Manuscripts I, S.I. 1583, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives. See also "Miscellaneous" volume of Freer House Catalogue, pgs. 167-183.

[2] See note 1.

[3] The original deed of Charles Lang Freer's gift was signed in 1906. The collection was received in 1920 upon the completion of the Freer Gallery.

Previous Owner(s)

Charles Lang Freer 1854-1919
Colonel Henry Bathurst Hanna (C.L. Freer source) 1839 - 1914

Published References
  • Thomas Lawton Linda Merrill. Freer: a legacy of art. Washington and New York, 1993. pp. 126-127, fig. 87.
  • Milo Cleveland Beach. The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court. Exh. cat. Washington, 1981. cat. 15, pp.62-3,66-7,135.
  • Catalogue of Indo - Persian Pictures and Manuscripts: Principally of the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries by Native Artists, Collected by Colonel H.B. Hanna. Exh. cat. London, May 1890. .
  • V. A. Smith. Colonel H.B. Hanna's Collection of Indo-Persian Pictures and Manuscripts. Bombay, June 1910. .
  • Veronica Ions. Indian Mythology. London. p. 53.
  • Peoples and Places of the Past: The National Geographic Illustrated Cultural Atlas of the Ancient World. Washington. p. 207.
  • Vishakha Nirubhai Desai. Connoisseur's Delights: Early "Rasikapriya" Paintings of India. 2 vols. Ann Arbor. pl. 36.
  • Sir Thomas W. Arnold. The Library of A. Chester Beatty: A Catalogue of the Indian Miniatures. 3 vols. London. p. 27.
  • Richard Ettinghausen. Paintings of the Sultans and Emperors of India in American Collections. Lalit Kala Series of Indian Art New Delhi. pls. 3-4.
  • Mario Bussagli. Indian Miniatures. London and New York. pp. 102-103, 105-106, 110, pls. 45-49.
  • Anis Farooqi. Art of India and Persia. New Delhi. pls. 52, 53.
  • Barbara Schmitz. The Imperial Image: Paintings for the Mughal Court. vol. 28, no. 1, Spring 1982. fig. 2.
  • Milo Cleveland Beach. Colonel Hanna's Indian Paintings. vol. 118, no. 258 London, August 1983. pp. 154-159, figs. 4, 5.
  • Milo Cleveland Beach. The Adventures of Rama: with Illustrations from a Sixteenth-Century Mughal Manuscript. Washington, 1983. .
  • Edwards Park. Treasures from the Smithsonian Institution., 1st ed. Washington and New York. p. 350.
  • Charles Le Brun Alain Danielou. Le Ramayana. Mystiques et Religions Paris. pp. 80-81.
  • P. Banerjee. Rama in Indian Literature, Art and Thought. 2 vols., Delhi. fig. 12.
  • Sheila Blair Jonathan M. Bloom. The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250-1800. Yale University Press Pelican History of Art London. pp. 293-294, fig. 370.
  • John Seyller in association with the Freer Gallery of Art. Workshop and Patron in Mughal India: The Freer Ramayana and Other Illustrated Manuscripts of 'Abd al-Rahim. Supplementum 42, Zurich and Washington. .
  • Grain Vapor Ray: Textures of the Anthropocene. .
Collection Area(s)
South Asian and Himalayan Art
Web Resources
Google Cultural Institute
Rights Statement

Copyright with museum

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